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Type 1 Diabetes
Nature of the Genetic Difficulty
Is there a point mutation, or any insertion/deletion entirely inside one gene? Is there a (gene or genes) missing? A whole chromosone extra, missing, or both? Or might the gene be extended in length?
This disease is autoimmune, meaning that the bodys system that fights for infection turns against a cerrtain part of the body. Type 1 diabetes attacks the immune system and destroys the beta cells which are in the islet tissue in the pancreas. In Type 1 diabetes the pancreas is lacking the amount of insulin needed to create energy. So any person with the disorder needs insulin daily.
The disease association of the common type 1 diabetes is associated with nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of protein tyrosine phosphatase; nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) on chromosome 1p13 has been confirmed in type 1 diabetes and also in other autoimmune diseases
Basis Facts of Disease
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic and lifelong disease, which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to properly control blood sugar levels. Type 1 is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults. Its old name was juvenile diabetes. In type 1, a persons body is incapable of producing insulin, which is needed to convert sugar, food, starches, etc into energy.
Insulin is used to lower blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells. Everyone needs insulin and those who have type 1 diabetes can't make their own insulin. Insulin must be injected through the skin by using a pump, not a pill.
There are several sypmtoms of this disorder including:
-Feeling tired or fatigued
-Being very thirsty
-Urinating more often
-Losing weight without trying
-Having blurry eyesight
-Losing the feeling or feeling tingling in your feet
-For others, warning symptoms that they are becoming very
Prognosis for Type 1 diabetes: it is relatively easy to control with proper medical attention, and acute complications are increasingly rare. However, long-term complications such as disorders of the eye, kidney, circulatory system, and nerve fibers are common. If left untreated, diabetes can result in death. Type 1 diabetes develops more often in children and young adults, but type 1 can appear at any age. Studies from the World Health Organization's Multinational Project for Childhood Diabetes show that type 1 diabetes is rare in most African, American Indian, and Asian populations. Sometimes type 1 can be kept under control by wise food choices and physical activity, but otherwise insulin is needed to help glucose get into your cells and to give you energy, also monitoring you blood sugar levels daily. The overall goal is to keep blood sugar levels the closest to normal to prevent any conflicts. During the day blood sugar level should be about 80-120 and at night 100-140.
There are several types of insulin. Including rapid or long acting and intermediate types. Examples of these are insulin Humulin R, Novolin R, insuline isophane Humulin N, Novolin N, Insulin lispro, insulin aspart, insulin glargine, and insulin detemir. There is also the insulin pump, where you use a small needle and catheter to check blood sugar and insert insulin in your body. Everything must be monitored carefully and you must take care of and be careful with what you do daily.
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